Marine Protected Area (MPA), Incentives, Governance, Mediterranean Sea, National Park, Management effectiveness
This paper provides preliminary findings from an examination of the nature of the management effectivness and governance structure underpinning the Port-Cros National Park (PCNP), created in 1963, then restricted to the Port-Cros Archipelago, and the newly created Port-Cros National Park (N-PCNP), (whose implementation process extended from 2012-2016) the surface area of which will be multiplied 64-fold to 75-fold. The analysis that follows was restricted to the marine parts of PCNP and N-PCNP. The MPAG governance analysis framework was applied through semi-structured interviews with park managers, staff and relevant experts. Through this systematic analysis the role and interaction between incentives are better understood. The PCNP, created primarily from the top-down with elements of a bottom-up approach, resulted, in the course of its more than 50-year history, in a successful positive balance between natural heritage preservation and sustainable development, such as the artisanal fishery. Public acceptance has been addressed through increased use of participative incentives, brought about by a reform of French National Parks in 2006 and the creation of the N-PNPC in 2012-2016. Although the current governance approach and management is effective, and not all cross cutting issues and challenges are sufficiently addressed, the French 2006 approach of national parks and the 2012-2016 bottom-up process of negotiating the N-PCNP charter is unique and is considered by those involved as a model for Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). It is recommended that increased participative and interpretative incentives be utilised to generate greater community stewardship.